Research suggests that bodybuilders are more at risk for unhealthy eating behaviors, muscle dysmorphia symptoms (MD), and exercise addiction. First, the current study aimed to establish a risk criterion for overtraining by comparing the volume and frequency of physical activity between high (HCB) and low (LCB) commitment bodybuilders. Results showed that HCB reported training significantly more often and at a higher intensity than LCB. Second, we verified the predictive validity of the physical activity risk index related to a number of unhealthy physical and psychological training behaviors. Results showed that high exercise frequency and volume were significantly predicted by MD symptoms, exercise addiction behaviors, and satisfaction with weight. Bivariate correlations suggest an indirect predictive effect of disordered eating and dissatisfaction with weight. Collectively, our results suggest that high levels of exercise intensity and volume can gauge the risk that bodybuilders will adopt unhealthy behaviors to achieve body image satisfaction.
Fitness-related practices differ greatly across worksite wellness programs (WPs). Reporting and documentation of such practices are integral to understanding the mechanisms that influence WP success. This review aims to organize the most relevant literature on fitness-related practices amongst WPs according to well-established variables of exercise prescription. A comprehensive search of five academic databases, organizational websites, bibliographies, and the authors’ personal libraries was carried out between October 30, 2017, and January 15, 2018. Data was then abstracted according to the American College of Sports Medicine’s (ACSM) FITT-VP principle of exercise prescription and compared to guidelines for musculoskeletal fitness (MF) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Emergent themes were also generated. Thirty-eight articles that reported on thirty-one separate programs were included in the review. Only one reported all of the elements needed to satisfy ACSM guidelines for both MF and CRF. Emergent themes included diverse measurement methods, a bias toward aerobic exercise, and incomplete reporting. In conclusion, future studies may benefit the literature by considering universally transferable measurement methods, reporting procedural elements of the program in replicable detail, examining complementary training methods in worksite contexts, and aligning exercise prescriptions with well-established principles and guidelines such as those provided by ACSM.
In the last decade, a massive body of research on food insecurity and health among women has emerged in various disciplines, including nursing, social work, psychology, and health geography. This article deploys an intersectional lens to identify successful coping mechanisms and the development of resilience in women living in poverty, linking food insecurity with geography, coping strategies, and health. A review of the literature reveals that, despite increasing interest in the health implications of food insecurity across multiple health and social disciplines, little is known about women’s food insecurity in different geographical contexts. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by exploring women’s experiences of food insecurity and the perceived impacts on their physical and mental health in the city of Greater Sudbury in Northern Ontario and the city of London in Southern Ontario, Canada. A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit twenty women from sites where services are provided to poor and/or homeless women. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis using NVIVO 11 software. The themes that emerged are congruent with the selected theoretical framework (intersectionality). The key themes identified include food and financial hardship (e.g., food availability, accessibility, and quality; food prices; income and rent), motherhood (e.g., feeding children first), resourcefulness (e.g., food skipping and food stretching) and health perception (e.g., physical health, mental health). The study’s findings have implications for the development of strengths-based and community-based interventions targeting women experiencing food insecurity.